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Thun Castle where Christian Stauffer was imprisoned
The History of Christian Stauffer
Christian, a fugitive Anabaptist preacher, may have been part of a great "Taufer hunt" along with Uli Zaugg and Uli Neuhaus in 1644. They were all captured and placed in jail in Thun, where the authorities there were warned to keep these obstinate preachers out of the Emmenthal Valley. Christian Stauffer lived at Luchsmatt farm in his early married life and then probably at Glashutte, both in Eggiwil and located west of the Eggiwil village proper on the road to Rothenbach. He was exiled with his second wife from Glashutte farm in Eggiwil in the fall of 1671. He was living in Dirmstein, Germany, in December of 1671 and by January 1, 1672 in Ibersheim, Germany, where he probably died. His children were christened at Röthenbach, but were probably all born at Luchsmatt farm in Eggiwil which lies near the border of Eggiwil and Röthenbach parishes. The Emmenthal Valley was a hotbed of Anabaptist activity and their numbers were growing, which greatly alarmed the authorities in Bern. By 1671, Eggiwil had a large group of Anabaptists, numbering about 40 adults, which when you add in their children probably totaled over 100 people. On May 3, 1671, the magistrate of Signau received orders from Bern to seize the Anabaptists of Eggiwil and bring them to the prison in Bern, where they would then be led out of Switzerland. The village community of Eggiwil refused to permit this, probably because so many of them had relatives who were Anabaptists and also because many themselves had leanings toward the Mennonite faith. Shortly thereafter twelve of the wealthiest residents of Eggiwil were sent to the city of Bern as hostages until the Anabaptists agreed to be delivered to the Bern prison or to leave the land. They agreed to the latter. On October 16, 1671, the Reformed pastor of Eggiwil was able to report that the Anabaptists had left of their own accord. They were not allowed to take much and probably had some of their possessions and lands confiscated as an emigration tax, as well as having their citizenship taken away. They would become refugees without a county. According to Valentine Hutwohl, a Mennonite Minister in the Pfalz, on December 14, 1671, 450 Anabaptists from Bern had recently arrived in the Pfalz. "These are scattered among the fellow believers throughout the region over a twelve-mile territory. Among these you will find those who need canes, being 70, 80, and 90 years old. On the whole they need clothing sorely; they didn't take more along than what they had on their backs. With little bedding, we don't know how to keep them warm. Some amongst us have seven, eight or nine living with them. When you speak of their property, they sigh, wishing that they had their houses and farm land here as before. There are men who left their wives and children, and women, older as well as younger, who have left husbands and children; others who brought along some, leaving the rest with the husbands, also expectant mothers; also children who left father, mother, brothers and sisters behind". Included in the Hutwohl letter was a list of the Swiss refugees. Many were members of Christian Stauffer's family. All lived together, having 21 children. They had left large possessions in Switzerland. They had a large debt with a merchant. They brought along 100 Reichsthalers and were given 250 to pay the debt. They were living at Dirmstein.
Friday, December 02 2011 @ 03:18 AM CST
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Stover Coat of Arms
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Friday, December 02 2011 @ 03:43 AM CST
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History of Daniel Boone
Daniel Boone (October 22, 1734 – September 26, 1820) was an American pioneer and hunter whose frontier exploits made him one of the first folk heroes of the United States. Boone is most famous for his exploration and settlement of what is now the U.S. state of Kentucky, which was then beyond the western borders of the Thirteen Colonies. Despite resistance from American Indians, for whom Kentucky was a traditional hunting ground, in 1775 Boone blazed the Wilderness Road through the Cumberland Gap and into Kentucky. There he founded Boonesborough, one of the first English-speaking settlements beyond the Appalachian Mountains. Before the end of the 18th century, more than 200,000 people entered Kentucky by following the route marked by Boone.
Boone was a militia officer during the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), which in Kentucky was fought primarily between settlers and British-allied American Indians. Boone was captured by Shawnees in 1778 and adopted into the tribe, but he escaped and continued to help defend the Kentucky settlements. He was elected to the first of his three terms in the Virginia General Assembly during the war, and fought in the Battle of Blue Licks in 1782, one of the last battles of the American Revolution. Boone worked as a surveyor and merchant after the war, but he went deep into debt as a Kentucky land speculator. Frustrated with legal problems resulting from his land claims, in 1799 Boone resettled in Missouri, where he spent his final years.
Boone remains an iconic, if imperfectly remembered, figure in American history. He was a legend in his own lifetime, especially after an account of his adventures was published in 1784, making him famous in America and Europe. After his death, he was frequently the subject of tall tales and works of fiction. His adventures—real and legendary—were influential in creating the archetypal Western hero of American folklore. In American popular culture, he is remembered as one of the foremost early frontiersmen, even though the mythology often overshadows the historical details of his life.
Boone was born on October 22, 1734. Because the Gregorian calendar was adopted during Boone's lifetime, his birth date is sometimes given as November 2, 1734 (the "New Style" date), although Boone always used the October date. He was the sixth of eleven children in a family of Quakers. His father, Squire Boone (1696–1765), had immigrated to Pennsylvania from the small town of Bradninch, England in 1713. Squire Boone's parents George and Mary Boone followed their son to Pennsylvania in 1717. In 1720, Squire, who worked primarily as a weaver and a blacksmith, married Sarah Morgan (1700–1777), whose family members were Quakers from Wales. In 1731, the Boones built a log cabin in the Oley Valley, now the Daniel Boone Homestead in Berks County, Pennsylvania, where Daniel was born.
Boone spent his early years on what was then the western edge of the Pennsylvania frontier. There were a number of American Indian villages nearby—the pacifist Pennsylvania Quakers generally had good relations with Indians—but the steady growth of the white population was compelling many Indians to relocate further west. Boone received his first rifle in 1747 and picked up hunting skills from local whites and Indians, beginning his lifelong love of hunting. Folk tales often emphasized Boone's skills as a hunter. In one story, the young Boone is hunting in the woods with some other boys. The scream of a panther scatters the boys, except for Boone, who calmly cocks his squirrel gun and shoots the animal through the heart just as it leaps at him. As with so many tales about Boone, the story may or may not be true, but it was told so often that it became part of the popular image of the man.
In Boone's youth, his family became a source of controversy in the local Quaker community. In 1742, Boone's parents were compelled to publicly apologize after their eldest child Sarah married a "worldling", or non-Quaker, while she was visibly pregnant. When Boone's oldest brother Israel also married a "worldling" in 1747, Squire Boone stood by his son and was therefore expelled from the Quakers, although his wife continued to attend monthly meetings with her children. Perhaps as a result of this controversy, in 1750 Squire sold his land and moved the family to North Carolina. Daniel Boone did not attend church again, although he always considered himself a Christian and had all of his children baptized. The Boones eventually settled on the Yadkin River, in what is now Davie County, North Carolina, about two miles (3 km) west of Mocksville.
Because he spent so much time hunting in his youth, Boone received little formal education. According to one family tradition, a schoolteacher once expressed concern over Boone's education, but Boone's father was unconcerned, saying "let the girls do the spelling and Dan will do the shooting...." Boone received some tutoring from family members, though his spelling remained unorthodox. Historian John Mack Faragher cautions that the folk image of Boone as semiliterate is misleading, however, arguing that Boone "acquired a level of literacy that was the equal of most men of his times." Boone regularly took reading material with him on his hunting expeditions—the Bible and Gulliver's Travels were favorites—and he was often the only literate person in groups of frontiersmen. Boone would sometimes entertain his hunting companions by reading to them around the evening campfire.
Hunter, husband, and soldier
As a young man, Boone served with the British military during the French and Indian War (1754–1763), a struggle for control of the land beyond the Appalachian Mountains. In 1755, he was a wagon driver in General Edward Braddock's attempt to drive the French out of the Ohio Country, which ended in disaster at the Battle of the Monongahela. Boone returned home after the defeat, and on August 14, 1755, he married Rebecca Bryan, a neighbor in the Yadkin Valley. The couple initially lived in a cabin on his father's farm. They would eventually have ten children.
In 1759, a conflict erupted between British colonists and Cherokee Indians, their former allies in the French and Indian War. After the Yadkin Valley was raided by Cherokees, many families, including the Boones, fled to Culpeper County, Virginia. Boone served in the North Carolina militia during this "Cherokee Uprising", and was separated from his wife for about two years. According to one story, Boone was gone for so long that Rebecca assumed he was dead, and began a relationship with his brother Edward ("Ned"), giving birth to daughter Jemima in 1762. Upon his return, the story goes, Boone was understanding and did not blame Rebecca. Whether the tale is true or not is uncertain, but Boone raised Jemima as his own child. Boone's early biographers knew this story, but did not publish it.
Boone's chosen profession also made for long absences from home. He supported his growing family in these years as a market hunter. Almost every autumn, Boone would go on "long hunts", which were extended expeditions into the wilderness lasting weeks or months. Boone would go on long hunts alone or with a small group of men, accumulating hundreds of deer skins in the autumn, and then trapping beaver and otter over the winter. The long hunters would return in the spring and sell their take to commercial fur traders. In this business, buckskins came to be known as "bucks", which is the origin of the American slang term for "dollar."
Frontiersmen often carved messages on trees or wrote their names on cave walls, and Boone's name or initials have been found in many places. One of the best-known inscriptions was carved into a tree in present Washington County, Tennessee which reads "D. Boon Cilled a. Bar [killed a bear] on [this] tree in the year 1760". A similar carving is preserved in the museum of the Filson Historical Society in Louisville, Kentucky, which reads "D. Boon Kilt a Bar, 1803." However, because Boone always spelled his name with the final "e", these particular inscriptions may be forgeries, part of a long tradition of phony Boone relics.
In the mid-1760s, Boone began to look for a new place to settle. The population was growing in the Yadkin Valley after the end of the French and Indian War, which inevitably decreased the amount of game available for hunting. This meant that Boone had difficulty making ends meet; he was often taken to court for nonpayment of debts, and he sold what land he owned to pay off creditors. After his father died in 1765, Boone traveled with a group of men to Florida, which had become British territory after the end of the war, to look into the possibility of settling there. According to a family story, Boone purchased land in Pensacola, but Rebecca refused to move so far away from friends and family. The Boones instead moved to a more remote area of the Yadkin Valley, and Boone began to hunt westward into the Blue Ridge Mountains.
Boone first reached Kentucky in the fall of 1767 when on a long hunt with his brother Squire Boone, Jr. While on the Braddock expedition years earlier, Boone had heard about the fertile land and abundant game of Kentucky from fellow wagoner John Findley, who had visited Kentucky to trade with American Indians. In 1768, Boone and Findley happened to meet again, and Findley encouraged Boone with more tales of Kentucky. At the same time, news had arrived about the Treaty of Fort Stanwix, in which the Iroquois had ceded their claim to Kentucky to the British. This, as well as the unrest in North Carolina due to the Regulator movement, likely prompted Boone to extend his exploration.
In May 1769, Boone began a two-year hunting expedition in Kentucky. On 22 December 1769, he and a fellow hunter were captured by a party of Shawnees, who confiscated all of their skins and told them to leave and never return. The Shawnees had not signed the Stanwix treaty, and since they regarded Kentucky as their hunting ground, they considered American hunters there to be poachers. Boone, however, continued hunting and exploring Kentucky until his return to North Carolina in 1771, and returned to hunt there again in the autumn of 1772.
On 25 September 1773, Boone packed up his family and, with a group of about 50 emigrants, began the first attempt by British colonists to establish a settlement in Kentucky. Boone was still an obscure hunter and trapper at the time; the most prominent member of the expedition was William Russell, a well-known Virginian and future brother-in-law of Patrick Henry. On October 9, Boone's oldest son James and a small group of men and boys who had left the main party to retrieve supplies were attacked by a band of Delawares, Shawnees, and Cherokees. Following the Treaty of Fort Stanwix, American Indians in the region had been debating what to do about the influx of settlers. This group had decided, in the words of historian John Mack Faragher, "to send a message of their opposition to settlement...." James Boone and William Russell's son Henry were captured and gruesomely tortured to death. The brutality of the killings sent shockwaves along the frontier, and Boone's party abandoned their expedition.
The massacre was one of the first events in what became known as Dunmore's War, a struggle between Virginia and primarily Shawnees of the Ohio Country for control of what is now West Virginia and Kentucky. In the summer of 1774, Boone volunteered to travel with a companion to Kentucky to notify surveyors there about the outbreak of war. The two men journeyed more than 800 miles in two months in order to warn those who had not already fled the region. Upon his return to Virginia, Boone helped defend colonial settlements along the Clinch River, earning a promotion to captain in the militia as well as acclaim from fellow citizens. After the brief war, which ended soon after Virginia's victory in the Battle of Point Pleasant in October 1774, Shawnees relinquished their claims to Kentucky.
Following Dunmore's War, Richard Henderson, a prominent judge from North Carolina, hired Boone to travel to the Cherokee towns in present North Carolina and Tennessee and inform them of an upcoming meeting. In the 1775 treaty, Henderson purchased the Cherokee claim to Kentucky in order to establish a colony called Transylvania. Afterwards, Henderson hired Boone to blaze what became known as the Wilderness Road, which went through the Cumberland Gap and into central Kentucky. Along with a party of about thirty workers, Boone marked a path to the Kentucky River, where he established Boonesborough. Other settlements, notably Harrodsburg, were also established at this time. Despite occasional Indian attacks, Boone returned to the Clinch Valley and brought his family and other settlers to Boonesborough on 8 September 1775.
Violence in Kentucky increased with the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783). Native Americans who were unhappy about the loss of Kentucky in treaties saw the war as a chance to drive out the colonists. Isolated settlers and hunters became the frequent target of attacks, convincing many to abandon Kentucky. By late spring of 1776, fewer than 200 colonists remained in Kentucky, primarily at the fortified settlements of Boonesborough, Harrodsburg, and Logan's Station.
On 14 July 1776, Boone's daughter Jemima and two other teenage girls were captured outside Boonesborough by an Indian war party, who carried the girls north towards the Shawnee towns in the Ohio country. Boone and a group of men from Boonesborough followed in pursuit, finally catching up with them two days later. Boone and his men ambushed the Indians while they were stopped for a meal, rescuing the girls and driving off their captors. The incident became the most celebrated event of Boone's life. James Fenimore Cooper created a fictionalized version of the episode in his classic book The Last of the Mohicans (1826).
In 1777, Henry Hamilton, the British Lieutenant Governor of Canada, began to recruit American Indian war parties to raid the Kentucky settlements. On 24 April, Shawnees led by Chief Blackfish attacked Boonesborough. Boone was shot in the ankle while outside the fort, but he was carried back inside the fort amid a flurry of bullets by Simon Kenton, a recent arrival at Boonesborough. Kenton became Boone's close friend as well as a legendary frontiersman in his own right.
While Boone recovered, Shawnees kept up their attacks outside Boonesborough, destroying the surrounding cattle and crops. With the food supply running low, the settlers needed salt to preserve what meat they had, and so in January 1778 Boone led a party of thirty men to the salt springs on the Licking River. On 7 February 1778, when Boone was hunting meat for the expedition, he was surprised and captured by warriors led by Blackfish. Because Boone's party was greatly outnumbered, he convinced his men to surrender rather than put up a fight.
Blackfish wanted to continue to Boonesborough and capture it, since it was now poorly defended, but Boone convinced him that the women and children were not hardy enough to survive a winter trek. Instead, Boone promised that Boonesborough would surrender willingly to the Shawnees the following spring. Boone did not have an opportunity to tell his men that he was bluffing in order to prevent an immediate attack on Boonesborough, however. Boone pursued this strategy so convincingly that many of his men concluded that he had switched his loyalty to the British.
Boone and his men were taken to Blackfish's town of Chillicothe where they were made to run the gauntlet. As was their custom, the Shawnees adopted some of the prisoners into the tribe to replace fallen warriors; the remainder were taken to Hamilton in Detroit. Boone was adopted into a Shawnee family at Chillicothe, perhaps into the family of Chief Blackfish himself, and given the name Sheltowee ("Big Turtle"). On 16 June 1778, when he learned that Blackfish was about to return to Boonesborough with a large force, Boone eluded his captors and raced home, covering the 160 miles to Boonesborough in five days on horseback and, after his horse gave out, on foot.
During Boone's absence, his wife and children (except for Jemima) had returned to North Carolina, fearing that he was dead. Upon his return to Boonesborough, some of the men expressed doubts about Boone's loyalty, since after surrendering the salt making party he had apparently lived quite happily among the Shawnees for months. Boone responded by leading a preemptive raid against the Shawnees across the Ohio River, and then by helping to successfully defend Boonesborough against a 10-day siege led by Blackfish, which began on 7 September 1778.
After the siege, Captain Benjamin Logan and Colonel Richard Callaway—both of whom had nephews who were still captives surrendered by Boone—brought charges against Boone for his recent activities. In the court-martial that followed, Boone was found "not guilty" and was even promoted after the court heard his testimony. Despite this vindication, Boone was humiliated by the court-martial, and he rarely spoke of it.
After the trial, Boone returned to North Carolina in order to bring his family back to Kentucky. In the autumn of 1779, a large party of emigrants came with him, including the grandfather of Abraham Lincoln. Rather than remain in Boonesborough, Boone founded the nearby settlement of Boone's Station. Boone began earning money at this time by locating good land for other settlers. Transylvania land claims had been invalidated after Virginia created Kentucky County, and so settlers needed to file new land claims with Virginia. In 1780, Boone collected about $20,000 in cash from various settlers and traveled to Williamsburg to purchase their land warrants. While he was sleeping in a tavern during the trip, the cash was stolen from his room. Some of the settlers forgave Boone the loss; others insisted that he repay the stolen money, which took him several years to do.
A popular image of Boone which emerged in later years is that of the backwoodsman who had little affinity for "civilized" society, moving away from places like Boonesborough when they became "too crowded". In reality, however, Boone was a leading citizen of Kentucky at this time. When Kentucky was divided into three Virginia counties in November 1780, Boone was promoted to lieutenant colonel in the Fayette County militia. In April 1781, Boone was elected as a representative to the Virginia General Assembly, which was held in Richmond. In 1782, he was elected sheriff of Fayette County.
Meanwhile, the American Revolutionary War continued. Boone joined General George Rogers Clark's invasion of the Ohio country in 1780, fighting in the Battle of Piqua on 7 August. In October, when Boone was hunting with his brother Ned, Shawnees shot and killed Ned. Apparently thinking that they had killed Daniel Boone, the Shawnees beheaded Ned and took the head home as a trophy. In 1781, Boone traveled to Richmond to take his seat in the legislature, but British dragoons under Banastre Tarleton captured Boone and several other legislators near Charlottesville. The British released Boone on parole several days later. During Boone's term, Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown in October 1781, but the fighting continued in Kentucky unabated. Boone returned to Kentucky and in August 1782 fought in the Battle of Blue Licks, in which his son Israel was killed. In November 1782, Boone took part in another Clark expedition into Ohio, the last major campaign of the war.
Businessman on the Ohio
After the Revolution, Boone resettled in Limestone (renamed Maysville, Kentucky in 1786), then a booming Ohio River port. In 1787, he was elected to the Virginia state assembly as a representative from Bourbon County. In Maysville, he kept a tavern and worked as a surveyor, horse trader, and land speculator. He was initially prosperous, owning seven slaves by 1787, a relatively large number for Kentucky at the time, which was dominated by small farms rather than large plantations. Boone became something of a celebrity while living in Maysville: in 1784, on Boone's 50th birthday, historian John Filson published The Discovery, Settlement And present State of Kentucke, a book which included a chronicle of Boone's adventures.
Although the Revolutionary War had ended, the border war with American Indians north of the Ohio River soon resumed. In September 1786, Boone took part in a military expedition into the Ohio Country led by Benjamin Logan. Back in Limestone, Boone housed and fed Shawnees who were captured during the raid and helped to negotiate a truce and prisoner exchange. Although the Northwest Indian War escalated and would not end until the American victory at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794, the 1786 expedition was the last time Boone saw military action.
Boone began to have financial troubles while living in Maysville. According to the later folk image, Boone the trailblazer was too unsophisticated for the civilization which followed him and which eventually defrauded him of his land. Boone was not the simple frontiersman of legend, however: he engaged in land speculation on a large scale, buying and selling claims to tens of thousands of acres. These ventures ultimately failed because of the chaotic nature of land speculation in frontier Kentucky, as well as Boone's faulty investment strategy and his lack of ruthless business instincts.
Frustrated with the legal hassles that went with land speculation, in 1788 Boone moved upriver to Point Pleasant, Virginia (now West Virginia). There he operated a trading post and occasionally worked as a surveyor's assistant. When Virginia created Kanawha County in 1789, Boone was appointed lieutenant colonel of the county militia. In 1791, he was elected to the Virginia legislature for the third time. He contracted to provide supplies for the Kanawha militia, but his debts prevented him from buying goods on credit, and so he closed his store and returned to hunting and trapping.
In 1795, he and Rebecca moved back to Kentucky, living in present Nicholas County on land owned by their son Daniel Morgan Boone. The next year, Boone applied to Isaac Shelby, the first governor of the new state of Kentucky, for a contract to widen the Wilderness Road into a wagon route, but the governor did not respond and the contract was awarded to someone else. Meanwhile, lawsuits over conflicting land claims continued to make their way through the Kentucky courts. Boone's remaining land claims were sold off to pay legal fees and taxes, but he no longer paid attention to the process. In 1798, a warrant was issued for Boone's arrest after he ignored a summons to testify in a court case, although the sheriff never found him. That same year Kentucky named Boone County in his honor.
In 1799, Boone moved out of the United States to Missouri, which was then part of Spanish Louisiana. The Spanish, eager to promote settlement in the sparsely populated region, did not enforce the legal requirement that all immigrants had to be Catholics. Boone, looking to make a fresh start, emigrated with much of his extended family to what is now St. Charles County. The Spanish governor appointed Boone "syndic" (judge and jury) and commandant (military leader) of the Femme Osage district. The many anecdotes of Boone's tenure as syndic suggest that he sought to render fair judgments rather than to strictly observe the letter of the law.
Boone served as syndic and commandant until 1804, when Missouri became part of the United States following the Louisiana Purchase. Because Boone's land grants from the Spanish government had been largely based on verbal agreements, he once again lost his land claims. In 1809, he petitioned Congress to restore his Spanish land claims, which was finally done in 1814. Boone sold most of this land to repay old Kentucky debts. When the War of 1812 came to Missouri, Boone's sons Daniel Morgan Boone and Nathan Boone took part, but by that time Boone was too old for militia duty.
Boone spent his final years in Missouri, often in the company of children and grandchildren. He hunted and trapped as often as his failing health allowed. According to one story, in 1810 or later Boone went with a group on a long hunt as far west as the Yellowstone River, a remarkable journey at his age, if true. Other stories of Boone around this time have him making one last visit to Kentucky in order to pay off his creditors, although some or all of these tales may be folklore. American painter John James Audubon claimed to have gone hunting with Boone in the woods of Kentucky around 1810. Years later, Audubon painted a portrait of Boone, supposedly from memory, although skeptics have noted the similarity of this painting to the well-known portraits by Chester Harding. Boone's family insisted that Boone never returned to Kentucky after 1799, although some historians believe that Boone visited his brother Squire near Kentucky in 1810 and have therefore reported Audubon's story as factual.
Boone's gravesite in Frankfort, Kentucky.
Boone died on September 26, 1820, at Nathan Boone's home on Femme Osage Creek. He was buried next to Rebecca, who had died on March 18, 1813. The graves, which were unmarked until the mid-1830s, were near Jemima (Boone) Callaway's home on Tuque Creek, about two miles (3 km) from present day Marthasville, Missouri. In 1845, the Boones' remains were disinterred and reburied in a new cemetery in Frankfort, Kentucky. Resentment in Missouri about the disinterment grew over the years, and a legend arose that Boone's remains never left Missouri. According to this story, Boone's tombstone in Missouri had been inadvertently placed over the wrong grave, but no one had corrected the error. Boone's Missouri relatives, displeased with the Kentuckians who came to exhume Boone, kept quiet about the mistake and allowed the Kentuckians to dig up the wrong remains. There is no contemporary evidence that this actually happened, but in 1983, a forensic anthropologist examined a crude plaster cast of Boone's skull made before the Kentucky reburial and announced that it might be the skull of an African American. Black slaves were also buried at Tuque Creek, so it is possible that the wrong remains were mistakenly removed from the crowded graveyard. Both the Frankfort Cemetery in Kentucky and the Old Bryan Farm graveyard in Missouri claim to have Boone's remains.
Daniel Boone remains an iconic figure in American history, although his status as an early American folk hero and later as a subject of fiction has tended to obscure the actual details of his life. The general public remembers him as a hunter, pioneer, and "Indian-fighter", even if they are uncertain when he lived or exactly what he did. Many places in the United States are named for him, including the Daniel Boone National Forest, the Sheltowee Trace Trail, and Boone County, Missouri. His name has long been synonymous with the American outdoors. For example, the Boone and Crockett Club was a conservationist organization founded by Theodore Roosevelt in 1887, and the Sons of Daniel Boone was the precursor of the Boy Scouts of America.
Emergence as a legend
Boone emerged as a legend in large part because of John Filson's "The Adventures of Colonel Daniel Boon", part of his book The Discovery, Settlement And present State of Kentucke. First published in 1784, Filson's book was soon translated into French and German, and made Boone famous in America and Europe. Based on interviews with Boone, Filson's book contained a mostly factual account of Boone's adventures from the exploration of Kentucky through the American Revolution. However, because the real Boone was a man of few words, Filson invented florid, philosophical dialogue for this "autobiography". Subsequent editors cut some of these passages and replaced them with more plausible—but still spurious—ones. Often reprinted, Filson's book established Boone as one of the first popular heroes of the United States.
Like John Filson, Timothy Flint also interviewed Boone, and his Biographical Memoir of Daniel Boone, the First Settler of Kentucky (1833) became one of the bestselling biographies of the 19th century. Flint greatly embellished Boone's adventures, doing for Boone what Parson Weems did for George Washington. In Flint's book, Boone fought hand-to-hand with a bear, escaped from Indians by swinging on vines (like Tarzan would later do), and so on. Although Boone's family thought the book was absurd, Flint greatly influenced the popular conception of Boone, since these tall tales were recycled in countless dime novels and books aimed at young boys.
Symbol and stereotype
Thanks to Filson's book, in Europe Boone became a symbol of the "natural man" who lives a virtuous, uncomplicated existence in the wilderness. This was most famously expressed in Lord Byron's epic poem Don Juan (1822), which devoted a number of stanzas to Boone, including this one: Of the great names which in our faces stare, The General Boon, back-woodsman of Kentucky, Was happiest amongst mortals any where; For killing nothing but a bear or buck, he Enjoyed the lonely vigorous, harmless days Of his old age in wilds of deepest maze.
Byron's poem celebrated Boone as someone who found happiness by turning his back on civilization. In a similar vein, many folk tales depicted Boone as a man who migrated to more remote areas whenever civilization crowded in on him. In a typical anecdote, when asked why he was moving to Missouri, Boone supposedly replied, "I want more elbow room!" Boone rejected such an interpretation of his life, however. "Nothing embitters my old age," he said late in life, like "the circulation of absurd stories that I retire as civilization advances…."
Existing simultaneously with the image of Boone as a refugee from society was, paradoxically, the popular portrayal of him as civilization's trailblazer. Boone was celebrated as an agent of Manifest Destiny, a pathfinder who tamed the wilderness, paving the way for the extension of American civilization. In 1852, critic Henry Tuckerman dubbed Boone "the Columbus of the woods", comparing Boone's passage through the Cumberland Gap to Christopher Columbus's voyage to the New World. In popular mythology, Boone became the first to explore and settle Kentucky, opening the way for countless others to follow. In fact, other Americans had explored and settled Kentucky before Boone, as debunkers in the 20th century often pointed out, but Boone came to symbolize them all, making him what historian Michael Lofaro called "the founding father of westward expansion".
In the 19th century, when Native Americans were being displaced from their lands and confined on reservations, Boone's image was often reshaped into the stereotype of the belligerent, Indian-hating frontiersman which was then popular. In John A. McClung's Sketches of Western Adventure (1832), for example, Boone was portrayed as longing for the "thrilling excitement of savage warfare." Boone was transformed in the popular imagination into someone who regarded Indians with contempt and had killed scores of the "savages". The real Boone disliked bloodshed, however. According to historian John Bakeless, there is no record that Boone ever scalped Indians, unlike other frontiersmen of the era. Boone once told his son Nathan that he was certain of having killed only one Indian, during the battle at Blue Licks, although he believed that others may have died from his bullets in other battles. Even though Boone had lost two sons in wars with Indians, he respected Indians and was respected by them. In Missouri, Boone often went hunting with the very Shawnees who had captured and adopted him decades earlier. Some 19th century writers regarded Boone's sympathy for Indians as a character flaw and therefore altered his words to conform to contemporary attitudes.
Boone's adventures, real and mythical, formed the basis of the archetypal hero of the American West, popular in 19th century novels and 20th century films. The main character of James Fenimore Cooper's Leatherstocking Tales, the first of which was published in 1823, bore striking similarities to Boone; even his name, Nathaniel Bumppo, echoed Daniel Boone's name. As mentioned above, The Last of the Mohicans (1826), Cooper's second Leatherstocking novel, featured a fictionalized version of Boone's rescue of his daughter. After Cooper, other writers developed the Western hero, an iconic figure which began as a variation of Daniel Boone.
In the 20th century, Boone was featured in numerous comic strips, radio programs, and films, where the emphasis was usually on action and melodrama rather than historical accuracy. These are little remembered today; probably the most noteworthy is the 1936 film Daniel Boone, with George O'Brien playing the title role. Audiences of the "baby boomer" generation are more familiar with the Daniel Boone television series, which ran from 1964 to 1970. In the popular theme song for the series, Boone was described as a "big man" in a "coonskin cap", and the "rippin'est, roarin'est, fightin'est man the frontier ever knew!" This did not describe the real Daniel Boone, who was not a big man and did not wear a coonskin cap. Boone was portrayed this way because Fess Parker, the tall actor who played Boone, was essentially reprising his role as Davy Crockett from an earlier TV series. That Boone could be portrayed as a Crockett, another American frontiersman with a very different persona, was another example of how Boone's image could be reshaped to suit popular tastes.[
Friday, December 02 2011 @ 03:38 AM CST
Contributed by: Admin
HANS STAUFFER'S ACCOUNT BOOK. A STUDY Arranged and Contributed by William T. Stauffer of Newport News, Virginia
Hans Stauffer, son of Daniel Stauffer, was born near Zurich,
Switzerland, about 1655. In 1685, he married Kinget Heistand, the widow of
Michael Reif, and the mother of Anneli Reif. They were Mennonites; and,
because of the persecution of the faith, fled to Alsheim in the neighborhood
of Strasburg, Germany, where he engaged in viniculture, renting an old
estate and castle. He inherited from his father 350 guldens and from his
sister, Anneli, 23 guldens. Through the influence of his step son - in -
law, Gerhart Clemens, Hans Stauffer migrated to America. He and his family
and his daughter's family, left their home on November 5, 1709, and after a
three days' journey embarked at Weissenau on the Rhine. After ten weeks'
intermittent travel they reached London on January 26, 1710. From London,
after a stormy and perilous voyage of sixty-seven days they reached
Philadelphia in the spring of 1710. They settled in Chester County,
Pennsylvania, near Valley Forge. Hans and Kinget Heistand Stauffer are
buried in a Mennonite graveyard near the place. No tombstone, or record of
their deaths has been discovered. Of their four Children:
Elizabeth and her husband, Paulus Friedt, settled near Grater's
Ford, Skippack township, Montgomery county. Their child, Mary, married Jacob
The three sons, Jacob, Daniel, and Henry settled near Bally, Berks
Anneli Reif, daughter of Kinget Heistand Reif, married Gerhard
Clemens. They settled in Salford township, Montgomery county.-W.F.S.
Item. In Oswald's reckoning there cam from grandfather one hundred
and sixty-six guldens, thirty kreutzers, 100 and 66 R., 30 kr.-I: 20.
Moreover, I fetched from father, Switzerland money, three hundred
pounds: a pound in local money is half a gulden or 30 kr. It amounts
altogether to 100 and 50 R. [This was at the time of his marriage in
Anno 1687, I, Hans Stauffer. Conrad Aschbacher brought me 40 crowns
and five dollars. Local money 57 guldens, 30 dreutbers.- II 36.
Anno 1695, 26 February, Peter Zalifinger of Senxabach brought me
from my father from Switzerland 22 R. Local money twenty-two guldens.-I: 37.
Moreover, my brother's house... from my brother Uli or Holland
remitted to me 40 Swiss crowns, local money fifty guldens. [Ulrich was
living in Friesland, Holland, as appears from the inside of the cover, only
part which has een preserved].-I: 100.
Moreover, I have from my sister, Anneli, 23 R., local money, which
she inherited, 1707.-I: 100
Grand total- the whole amount yields three hundred and seventy-three
R., say 373 R. [This total probably includes the total inheritance from
Anno 1707, Hans Gerber bought me 15 crowns together with the interest
which I inherited from my sister, Anneli, 1707. Local money, 50
guldens.- II: 36.
II. Concerning Kinget Hiestand
Anno 1635, I took [from] my wife, Kinget Hiestand, of money and money's
worth 100 and 50 R., to say one hundred and fifty guldens.- I: 101.
My wife, Kinget Hiestand, had money from her mother from Switzerland,
29 R., say twenty-nine guldens.
Moreover, my wife, Kinget Hiestand, when I got her, had 100 R. from
Michael Reif from Metterheim, 1685.- I: 99.
III. Concerning Anneli Reif.
Anno 1702, Gerhart Clemens married Anneli Reif. - II: 54.
I gave out of that which came from Michael Reif for my daughter, Anna,
called Anel, toward her wedding: First, an ox weighted one hundred and
twenty pounds, a pound for a groschen. Is reckoned together six guldens,
say 6 R. Lasty of the ox and wether and hog makes together five guldens.
The groceries for the wedding, two guldens.
Moreover, I gave toward the wedding in linen cloth two guldens.
Moreover, I gave Anel two guldens for the chest, 1703, August. On the
second purchase in the drug store glory wax mixed with other wax.
Moreover, I gave Anel a cow and the calf. Is valued at twelve
Reichsthalers (Rixdollars).-I: 41, 42.
I, gave my step-daughter, Anneli Reif, from the Michael Rief heritage,
a cow with the calf, valued at eighteen guldens. I: 45.
Item. I, gave my step-child, Anli Reif, woolen cloth toward her wedding
for eighteen guldens and woolen cloth toward the wedding for 12 guldens.
August 9, 1702.- I: 45, 45.
Item. I, Hans Stauffer, owe my son-in-law, Gerhart Clemens, of the
goods from Metterheim, which comes from Michael Reif, one hundred and
sixty guldens, say 100 and 60 R.- I: 20.
I, Gerhart Clemens, acknowledge that my father-in-law made a reckoning
with me, sixty-six guldens, say 66 R., January, 1704. Gerhart Clemens.
1704. the 24... I gave my son-in-law, Gerhart Clemens, in money 5 R.,
say five guldens. - 1: 21.
On New-Years day, 1705, I again gave Gerhart Clemens 5 R.- I: 24.
1705, in February, I gave my son-in-law, Gerhart Clemens, at Lower
Pflorsheim, 12 R. in money; the horse and enough money to make 66 R.,
Item, I, Hans Stauffer, gave my son-in-law in addition to the horse, 10
R., say 10 guldens.
1705, the 19 September, I gave my son-in-law four guldens.
Anno 1705, on Christmas day, I gave my son-in-law, Gerhart Clemens, in
money 3. R.- 44, 54, 24.
Item. I, gave my son-in-law 3 malters of oats, the 10 March, 1706. 3
malters of oats, a malter for a dollar, 4 R. 30 kr.-1: 42, 43.
Item, I, gave my son-in-law 2 R., the 27 July, 1706.- I: 44.
IV> Concerning Elizabeth Friedt
Item. Im Hans Stauffer, bought my daughter, Elizabeth woolen cloth for
the wedding 4 R., to say four guldens, and two guldens pure linen cloth.
Anno 1707, the 5 June.- I: 69.
V. Other Items
[Many not in Hans's writing].
I, Hans Stauffer. Made a lease with the Lord Fieldmarshal General, Van
Kaunter. for the citadel of the castle goods 1697 for three years 1700.-
Anno 1703, I, H. St., gave for toll and fare over the Rhine 12 R. of my
lord's crop as I took it to Geisenheim. I: 64.
1704, the 2 March, gave both burgomasters 5 guldens and 37 (kreutzers)
French.- I: 25
1704, the fifth March, gave defence-master, Fran, money, 3 R. - I: 25.
The girl's receipts. In October, 1704, I, Hans Stauffer, gathered
eighteen quarters (grapes). An aam is worth ten guldens. The third part
yields the girl two guldens and fifty kreutzers. - I: 55.
Johannes Stauffer paid in the name of his lord principal from my
vineyard in St. Holle 13 albuses, 7 pfennigs, for the years 1703 and
1704, with 27 albuses and 6 pfennigs. From the point of the garden back
of his house yearly 2 --; of Oberdorf two years 1 R., 2 albuses and such
rents [as] appertain to the... castle cellarage at Seemsheim. - I:65.
The 1 day January, 1705, I kept the horseman three days and board: 1
gulden, 30 kr.
The 16 day January, I kept the horseman 3 days and board, again 1 R.
The 30 day January, I kept the horseman 3 days and board, again one
[This is repeated for February 13, March 1, March 22, April 7, April
29, May 15] p. 47.
1705, the 8 day February, I gave burgomaster 5 guldens (R) and fifth
seven kreutzers (57 kr.).- I: 22.
1705, March 26, sold malter for one dollar. I: 40.
The 24 April, gave burgomaster Kundlutz 1 (gulden). -I: 40.
The 25 May, 1705, with the burgomaster thirteen guldens and twenty
kreutzers. I: 47.
The 20 day October, 1705 year, I gathered grapes, one and one-half
aams, and the third part belonging to the girl amounts to one-half an
aam. A half aam is worth 5 guldens. Receipts 5 R.-I: 54.
Deed, Alsheim, the 15 day December, 1705.
I, paid to the burgomaster at Alsheim on the old Rhine for the lord
Chieftaim Junkheim for 7... and 4 R. 7 kr. Witnessed at Alsheim, the 16
December, 1705. David Hossman (Hoffman) John Scherff.
The 16 December, 1705. I gave lord administrator Krauss of the
foundation [charitable] at Oppenheim 1 R. 7 kr. 6 pfen. for 1703. -I:
In the year 1705 I gave lord administrator Krauss of the foundation
[charitable] at Oppenheim 2 R. 15 kr. for the years 1704 and 1705. I:
Hans Stauffer paid the burgomaster of Alsheim on the old Rhine... near
Metz 3. R. 2 kr. Witnessed at Alsheim, 28 December. David Hoffman, John
1705, the... gave Levler for 1704 of goods and oats, fifth-one
kreutzers. - I: 22.
Sold..., a malter for 1 (gulden), 12 kreutzers.- I: 40.
Moreover, I bought... paper, two sheets.. cost one gulden - I: 47.
Anno 1708, in the autumn on the apple trees, apples and blossoms hung
together on the same tree or twig. And this was found on many trees. II:
Filled for Hans Meir 12 measures of wine the 27 November, 1708. -II:
Praise the Lord, the Almighty King of Glory, my beloved soul, that is
my desire [part of a hymn]. - I: 99.
My man-servant, Daniel Spingel, 6 batzes to sole a pair of shoes.
Moreover, to Daniel Spingel 2... as he wrote, a twopice. Moreover, gave
Daniel Spingel 2 guldens - I: 102.
Henry Hiestand's two men-servants have eight ticking, the 29 day
December. - II: 34.
Grammes [probably Grimes] cut straw for us two and one half days.
Moreover Grammes cut for us one day. Moreover on day.- II: 35.
VI. The Journey from Wissenau to London.
[Book 2: 1,2,3.]
In the year anno 1709, I, Hans Stauffer, removed on the fifth of
November with wife and children: Jacob Stauffer 13 years; Daniel 12
years; Henry, 9 years; Elizabeth, with her huaband, Paulus Friedt, and
one child Maria by name, with myself, eight, we set sail from Weissenau
on the 8 day of November. At Bingen we remained one day and we left on
the 10 day of November. At Hebster we set sail on the 11 day November.
At Neuen Wirt we set sail on the 12 day November. At Erbsen we set sail
on th 13 day November and came to Millen. There we had to remain one
day. On the 15 we left Millen. At Eisen we lay two days. On the 17
November, 1709, we sailed away. On the 18 we came to Erding. And on the
20 day November we left Erding and sailed a half hour under the Wiesol
and on the 21 we went to the shore. Therewe had to remain until the wind
became calm. And on the 22 ditto we sailed as far as Emrig. There we had
to remain untill the wind became calm. And on the 24 ditto we left Emrig
and came to Schingen Schantzs. There we had to remian untill the wind
became calm. On the 27 November we sailed away from Schingen Schantzs
and sailed toward Arm. During the night to Rein and on the 28 ditto we
came to Wieg and thence we came to Ghert on the 29 day November. On the
first day of December we arrived at Amsterdam. And on the 17 December we
left Amsterdam and sailed a half hour before the City., There we had to
remain until the wind became favorable (good) and clam. And on the 19
day December we came to Rotterdam. There we had to wait until the tide
was ready for sailing. Thirteen days we had to remain. On the 29
December we sailed from Rotterdam nearly to Brielle. There we had to
remain untill the wind was favorble. On the 20 day January we left
Brielle and sailed six days on the sea to London.
Family of Jacob Stauffer.
My son, Henry Stauffer, was born to me in the year 1725, the 3 August.
My son, Christian Stauffer, was born to me the year 1728, the 18 day
My daughter, Susan, was born to me in the year 1730, the 11 day April
in [the sign] Gemini.
My daughter, Ester, was born to me the year 1732, in June.
My son, Abraham, was born to me in the year 1734, in December.
My son, John, was born to me in the year 1737, October.
Children of Jacob Stauffer._ I: 70-71.
Anno 1754, in November, I, Jacob Stauffer, received from my son, Henry
Stauffer, 60 pounds money. This he paid on his land.- II: 9.
Anno 1757, the 22 day October, I, Jacob Stauffer, paid to Stoffel
Zigeler- pound money for my son, Henry Stauffer. _ II: 7.
Anno 1759, the 8 day April, I, received money from my son, Henry
Stauffer, 26 pounds. This he paid on his land.
Anno 1759, the 9 day June, received money from my son, Henry Stauffer,
8 pounds. This he paid on his land. II: 9.
Anno 1760, the 19 February, I, received money from my son, Henry
Stauffer. The amount is 50 pounds. This he paid on his land. - II: 10.
Anno, 1760, the 14 August, I, received money from my son, Henry
Stauffer, 7 pounds. This he paid on his land.
Anno, 1760, The 30 August, I, received money from my son, Henry
Stauffer, 10 pounds. This he paid on his land.
Anno, 1768, the 15 February, I Jacob Stauffer, paid my son, Henry
Stauffer, one hundred and fify pounds money on his inheritance. - II:
Jacob Villweiller owes me two shillings and three pence. Henry
Stauffer.- II: 3.
Anno 1743, the 7 day December, I, Jacob Stauffer, paid on the land of
my son, Christian Stauffer, 145 pounds, and my son, Christian Stauffer,
also paid 25 pounds.
Anno 1755, in May, I, paid on the land of my son, Christian Stauffer,
the sum of 90 pounds, money.
Anno 1756, the 10 day July, paid on the land of my son, Christian
Stauffer, the sum of 70 pounds. - II: 44
Anno 1757, in January, paid on the land of my son, Christian Stauffer,
the sum of 27 pounds, 3 shillings.
Anno 1757, the last day of June, paid on the land of my son, Christian
Stauffer, with the 15 pounds which Jacob Buchwalter gave me on his
wife's inheritance, the remaining 20 pounds I paid. Makes altogether
thirty-five pounds. - II: 45.
Anno 1768, the 6 January, paid my son, Christian Stauffer, one hundred
and fifty pounds money on his inheritance. -II: 21.
Anno 1769, the 14 day November, my daughter, Susan, intermarried with
Peter *Allibach, and I, Jacob Stauffer, paid on her inheritance one
hundred and fifty pounds money. -II: 22.
1782, I paid Peter *Allebach on his inheritance 18 pounds.
1784, May 27, I paid Henry Stauffer 17 pounds for Peter *Allebach's
inheritance. [these two are in the writing of John Stauffer.] - II: 11.
Anno 1760, the 29 day May, my daughter, Ester, married, and I paid her
one hundred and fifty pounds money on her inheritance. - II: 22.
Anno 1763, in September, I, gave my son Abraham Stauffer, money. It is
400 pounds and 20 pounds and 5 shillings. This he paid on his land.
Anno 1764, in February, gave my son, Abraham Stauffer, money, 7 pounds.
This he paid on his land.
Anno 1764, in April, sold my son, abraham Stauffer, a mare for 12
pounds and a horse for 8 pounds. -II: 13.
Anno 1768, the 16 January, gave my son, Abraham Stauffer, money. The
amount is 25 pounds, which Jacob Clemer received from me. - II: 14.
Anno 1769. the 2 day May, I, Jacob Stauffer, lent my son Abraham
Stauffer, money, 8 pounds. - II: 11.
John Bailey. I sold Hans Belli one bushel of wheat for 3 shillings 4
pence and a half bushel of corn for 15 pence.
1741 he got 3 bushels of wheat at 4 shillings a bushel. And he got two
bushels at 3 shillings. And he got one break for 5 shillings. And he got
one plow for 5 shillings and he sold me one swarm of bees for 7
I made a plow for Hans Belli for 5 shillings year 1745.
Anno 1746 in March, Hans Belli got one sieve 2 shillings. _ II: 4.
Christian Gehman, I sold Christian Geman wheat, 3 bushels, a bushel for
4 shillings in the year 1741 in May.
November 24, 1740, I sold Geman 3 bushels and one half of corn at half
a crown a bushel.
April 18, 1740. I lent Christian Geman 6 bushels of corn.
June 16. I lent or sold Christian Geman 3 bushels of wheat at 2
shillings 6 pence a bushel. Moreover, he got 1 bushel of seed wheat at 3
April 11, 1745, Geman got a plow for 5 shillings.
1747 in August, Christin Geman got a bushel of wheat for 3 shillings. -
Ulrich Conrad. Anno 1758, the 24 October, I, Jacob Stauffer, sold for
Ulli Cunrat dried apples, one bushel for half a crown.
Anno 1758, the 8 December, sold fabric for Ulli Cunrat, 12 pounds for 2
Anno 1759, the 12 January, sold dried apples for 18 pence for Ulli
Cunrat. - II: 7.
I, Jacob Stauffer, got from Ulli Cunrat a wash tub for 9 shillings.
Anno 1763, I sold wool for Ulli Cunrat for half a crown. - II: 8.
I lent Casper Bauman three pounds money and 17 shillings in the year
1741 in December. Paid 25 Shillings.
And I made a plow for 5 shilings in the year 1743, the 20 April - II:
Anno 1755, 9 July, sold wheat to Peter Allerbuch for half a crown.
Family of John Stauffer.
My son, Henry, was born in the year 1767, the 20 November.
My daughter, Sally was born to me in the year 1771, the 11 November.
My daughter, Elizabeth, was born in 1779, the 19 October.
1785, the 6 day September, my son, Jacob Stauffer, was born. - II: 73.
My daughter, Elizabeth, died in the year 1793, in June. - I: 74.
Date, 1821, May 31st day, my Son, Henry Stauffer, died. His training,
for the most part, was in reading and writing, and in brass and sliver
work very apt. - I: 72.